This page was last updated on 29 July, 2019.
Where was the Garden of Eden? As with many things there is no consensus on its location.
It always was my view/feeling that Eden must have been in Israel. Even in Jerusalem itself.
Jerusalem was the place of the Temples. The place God chose. The most holy spot on earth.
Likewise the Garden was the most perfect/holy place on earth when Adam lived there.
According to some the Garden was somewhere in Iraq.
For me personally it's only logical when Jesus returns, He will rule the world from Jerusalem, Israel. Jesus comes to restore what was lost/destroyed by Adam's disobedience. Wouldn't it make sense Jerusalem is in the former garden. Especially because several major events took place the spot where Jerusalem is right now, but long before it existed?
This is going to be a bumpy ride. There are clues in the Bible to locate the Garden. But nothing more than clues. I'll collect information from all over the place and piece it together to locate Eden.
1. Starting with the conclusions
The information used in this study comes from several sources. Organizing it in a logical order is (almost) impossible. It get’s needlessly complex when working toward a conclusion.
Starting with the conclusion and then filling in the details later turns out to be a less chaotic method.
2. Between Egypt and Jericho
Eden was possibly derived from the Akkadian word edinu based on the Sumerian word eden, meaning "plain, steppe." Akkadian Bīt Adini refers to the region on both sides of the Euphrates. It was then secondarily associated with the homonymous but unrelated Hebrew root 'ādan meaning enjoyment. However the LXX seems to derive this word directly from the Hebrew root 'ādan by translating it "garden of delight."
So Eden means plain/steppe or delight.
Genesis 2:8 And LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed.
The Garden was inside a land called Eden, and that land was east from a certain reference point.
Moses wrote Genesis just after he left Egypt. That means that (the Garden of) Eden was east from where Moses was standing .Viewed from the Egypt, the Garden of Eden was in the east.
It must be mentioned that scholars don’t agree that Moses actually wrote Genesis. The location of writing isn’t very sure. In theory a chapter could have been written during every stop they made.
The Jewish view is that Jerusalem being the center of the world, means east is as viewed from Jerusalem, the Temple
Isa 11:14 But they shall fly onto the shoulder of the Philistines to the west; together they shall plunder the sons of the east, the stretching of the hand on Edom and Moab and the sons of Ammon; they will obey them. .
Sons of the east live in the land of the east. Israel.
Isaiah is referring to the enemies of Israel. The Philistines lived in the western coastal plain of Canaan (Israel). Edom was located south of the Dead Sea, Moab and Ammon east of the Dead Sea. These are areas located within and to the south and east of what is today Israel
Genesis 4:16 And Cain went out from the presence of LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.
Genesis 4:17 And Cain knew his wife, and she conceived, and bore Enoch. And [Cain] built a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son, Enoch.
Nod is east of Eden and a city is build there. The location of Nod is unknown but (one of) the oldest cities is Jericho; dated as old as 9000BC. Jericho was located just north of the Dead Sea.
Viewed from the Jericho, the Garden of Eden Jericho was in the west.
The Garden was somewhere between Egypt or Temple and Jericho.
If the above is correct it would rule out a lot of possible locations because the distance between Egypt and Jericho isn't that big. It rules out the often assumed location somewhere in Iraq.
Was the holy Garden really located in the Holy Land? Let’s continue our search.
The Garden of Eden is located somewhere between the red lines.
3. Became 4 heads
Gen 2:10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from there it was parted, and became into four heads/rosh.
A valid location for the Garden of Eden greatly depends on the following:
Before going into detail let’s examine some drawings exploring the various combinations.
Option #1: Possible
About the above model:
Option #2: Possible
About the above model:
Option #3: Impossible
About the above model:
3b. Conclusions from the rules
3c. Heads -
Gen 2:10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.
The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river.
In the past, the small Kalaus River in south-
Secular definition summarized
A head of a river/stream is:
3d. Heads -
Gen 2:10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.
View #1 -
in no instance is rosh (literally, "head") applied as the source of a river
M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclopaedia, vol. III, p.53
Ezek 21:21 For stood hath the king of Babylon at the mother of the way, At the head of the two ways, to use divination, He hath moved lightly with the arrows, He hath asked at the teraphim, He hath looked on the liver.
The king was traveling on the ‘mother’ road and he arrived at a fork in the road, the head of the road. He took the road to Jerusalem.
According to the above quoted view the two roads end at the fork. They merge into the mother.
Personally I’m not so sure about that view.
View #2 -
Very similar to the secular view. Specifically about the 4 rivers, Jewish writings suggest head=spring.
Probably the most suitable answer concerning the actual location of the Garden of Eden is to think of the river that watered the garden and thereafter became four 'branches' as actually comprising the beginning or juncture going upstream from a point in southern Mesopotamia
ISBE, new edition, vol. II, p.17
1) head, top, summit, upper part, chief, total, sum, height, front, beginning
1a) head (of man, animals)
1b) top, tip (of mountain)
1c) height (of stars)
1d) chief, head (of man, city, nation, place, family, priest)
1e) head, front, beginning
1f) chief, choicest, best
1g) head, division, company, band
3e. Eden is a mountain at the seas
Ezek 28:13 You have been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was your covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of your tabrets and of your pipes was prepared in you in the day that you were created.
Ezek 28:14 You are the anointed cherub that covers; and I have set you so: you were on the holy mountain of God; you have walked up and down in the middle of the stones of fire.
There are two great candidates for that location.
The Temple mount , where the Temple stood, or Mt. Olives, where Jesus was crucified.
God lived in the Temple so strictly speaking that’s was what Ezekiel wrote about.
Ezek 28:2 Son of man, say to the prince of Tyrus, Thus said the Lord GOD; Because your heart is lifted up, and you have said, I am a God, I sit in the seat of God, in the middle of the seas; yet you are a man, and not God, though you set your heart as the heart of God:
Jerusalem is near seas. Mediterranean sea, Dead Sea, Read Seam, Sea of Tiberias.
But I must admit the last 3 possible were formed by seismic activity after Adam was expelled from Eden; during the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.
3f. All that solves?
I have a personal feeling that the Temple/Jerusalem is the source of all water. Water is often equaled to life in the Bible. Several prophesies speak about water flowing out of the Temple and restoring life in the desert. Yeah, I'm fully aware that spiritual. I think it's also literal.
That leaves only option #1. And with that the definition: Head = source.
But ignoring that feeling, 2 options remain.
4. Locating the four rivers -
The Tigris and Euphrates can be found on every map of the area so no need to waste time on them.
The first step to finding the other two rivers is finding the lands they encompass.
Gen 2:11 The name of the first is the Pishon; it winds through the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold.
Gen 2:11 The name of the first is Pishon; it flows around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.
4a. Gold, Onyx and Bdellium
Gen 2:11 The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasses the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;
Gen 2:12 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone.
Mahd adh Dhahab means ‘Cradle of Gold’ is the oldest and most rich goldmine from the ancient past. Likely it’s Biblical Ophir. Archeologists have found, what they think is, Solomon’s mine nearby Mahd adh Dhahab. 255km/158mile NNE of Mecca.
It can be taken as a fact that during and even before Solomon, gold was mined there.
The Bible seems to imply onyx was mined in Saudi-
Bdellium is a fragrant gum resin from plants that only grow in modern Yemen and Northern Somalia.
Because Bdellium only grows in a few places the number of possible locations for Pishon is very limited. It must be very near Yemen or northern Somalia.
Gold can be found in many places, but not so easily available as in Mahd adh Dhahab. Keep in mind that mining technology in Solomon’s time wasn’t able to mine gold in the same places we mine it today.
All that places Pishon in Saudi Arabia
4b. Wadi al Batin + Wadi Rimah + Wadi al Jarir = Pishon
The title is the conclusion.
Wadi al Batin empties into the Persian Gulf. It has a delta* of cobbles and pebbles that gradually become smaller as they reach the gulf. The bigger stones are always more upstream because before the river fans out into its delta, the current is higher and can carry bigger rocks. The composition of those rocks play a key role, they are crystalline rocks that are only found on the western side mountains (Red Sea) of Saudi-
*= This delta is huge and spanning two-
There is no river crossing Saudi-
Wadi al Batin, starts in Umm Qasr, Iraq, few miles north of the border of Kuwait.
It ends near Al Hatifah in Saudi-
Swallowed has to be taken quite literally because satellite imaging has shown that it runs under the sand dunes, and what’s the end of Wadi Rimah.
80 miles west Wadi Rimah splits into Wadi Qahd and Wadi al Jarir. It passes the gold mines, then a little later it ends.
Markings in the sand
Boston University scientist Farouk El-
Patterns are created by air circulation, and circulation is influenced by topography.
The river runs over a fault line
The river slowly dried up between 3500-
Source: The Biblical Archaeology Review (July/August 1996)
Marked with black
Havilah, likely means sandland.
Most/many scholars think Havilah was in the north-
Havilah is marked with a black ellipse. The black star marks the main mine. Also near Solomon’s mine.
The problem with this location is that it has no onyx and bdellium; but are found in Yemen. Yemen also has gold. Not as much as the other area, but still a very serious amount. That area is marked by the black square.
That huge difference is quite problematic for finding the location of the Pishon that surrounded Havilah.
Both the black dotted line
Remove and replace by Wadi line
and the black dashed line are extremely simplified versions of rivers surrounding their respective Cush country.
That said; perhaps the answer is that Havilah is most of the east-
The black dash-
Remove that line from the drawing.
1Sam 15:7 And Saul smiteth Amalek from Havilah-
Always thinking from the east, ‘the front’ means east. Just a verse that shows Havilah was quite near Egypt.
DOES MOUNTAIN GRAVEL DEBUNK RIVER ORIGIN JERUSALEM?
Does gravel come from after rift break or also before?
https://www.science.gov/topicpages/r/red+sea+rift Spreading started millions of years ago.
When info is collected edit and merge 3b sections. Add pictures.
4b. Gihon and Cush
Gen 2:13 And the name of the second river is Gihon. It is the one surrounding all the land of Cush.
Gen 2:13 And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasses the whole land of Ethiopia.
Gen 2:13 And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasses the whole land of Sudan.
Note: Many translations read: ‘winds through’, ‘passes through’ or ‘flows through’. This could be the more accurate meaning because the river simply doesn’t surround the whole country.
Marked with red
The original text reads Cush, but the translators wanted to be helpful and translated that name with the name of the modern country they assumed Cush was in. Not even a translation but more like an opinion or commentary. Cush means black, and a century ago it was understood as ‘land of black/colored people’. Not very helpful either because there are so many black people it can hardly be used to pinpoint anything.
Biblical Ethiopia is Nubia.
Biblical Ethiopia is not the same as modern Ethiopia. Not even in part.
Biblical Ethiopia is not the same as the Ethiopian Empire called Abyssinia (1270-
Biblical Ethiopia is the most southern part of modern Egypt and in the northern part of modern Republic of Sudan. Possibly Khartoum, Sudan, and northward.
This theory is quite well supported by the Biblical text and archeology.
Much of the translators' tendency to translate kush by a term that has modern day political significance stems from the Septuagint's use of the word Aithiopia . At the time the Septuagint was translated, this was indeed a correct Greek term to use in translating kush. The Greek word Aithiopia had both a narrow and a wide use. The narrow definition was the Nile valley, south of Egypt, such as used by Herodutus (5th century BC). "Aithiopians inhabit the country immediately above (south of] Elephantine [n.b. an island at Aswan] ... you will arrive at a large city called Meroe: this city said to be the capital of all Aithiopia" (Herodutus ii .9). He also used the same definition of Aithiopia when he wrote of Cambyses procuring interpreters at Elephantine (modern Aswan) for his expedition into Aithiopia and marching in via Thebes and back out through Thebes and on to Memphis (iii 19-
'Ethiopia' in most of the references in Greek literature refers to people along the Nile, above [n.b. south of] the fourth cataract.. This differs from modern Ethiopia, however, which lies well to the east of the Cushites"
The name Kush, since at least the time of Josephus, has been connected with the biblical character Cush, in the Hebrew Bible , son of Ham (Genesis 10:6). Ham had four sons named: Cush, Put, Canaan and Mizraim (Hebrew name for Egypt). According to the Bible, Nimrod, a son of Cush, was the founder and king of Babylon, Erech, Akkad and Calneh, in Shinar (Gen 10:10). The Bible also makes reference to someone named Cush who is a Benjamite (Psalms 7:1, KJV).
Ezek 29:10 Therefore, lo, I am against thee, and against thy floods, And have given the land of Egypt for wastes, A waste, a desolation, from Migdol to Syene, And unto the border of Cush.
Migdol was at the Mediterranean Sea and Syene is two thirds down Egypt, modern Aswan. So going from north to south. That means Cush is on Egypt’s southern border.
Ps 68:31 Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands to God.
Egypt never sent armies all the way to Tigris.
Isa 20:3 And Jehovah saith, `As My servant Isaiah hath gone naked and barefoot three years, a sign and a wonder for Egypt and for Cush,
Isa 20:4 so doth the king of Asshur lead the captivity of Egypt, and the removal of Cush, young and old, naked and barefoot, with seat uncovered-
Isa 20:5 and they have been affrighted and ashamed of Cush their confidence, and of Egypt their beauty,
Jer 46:7 Who is this? as a flood he cometh up, As rivers do his waters shake themselves!
Jer 46:8 Egypt, as a flood cometh up, And as rivers the waters shake themselves. And he saith, I go up; I cover the land, I destroy the city and the inhabitants in it.
Jer 46:9 Go up, ye horses; and boast yourselves, ye chariots, And go forth, ye mighty, Cush and Phut handling the shield, And Lud handling-
Cush and Egypt are linked in these verses.
2Kgs 19:8 So Rabshakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria warring against Libnah: for he had heard that he was departed from Lachish.
2Kgs 19:9 And when he heard say of Tirhakah king of Cush, Behold, he is come out to fight against thee: he sent messengers again unto Hezekiah, saying,
2Kgs 19:10 Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God in whom thou trustest deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria.
2Kgs 19:11 Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all lands, by destroying them utterly: and shalt thou be delivered?
2Kgs 19:12 Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed; as Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden which were in Thelasar?
2Kgs 19:13 Where is the king of Hamath, and the king of Arpad, and the king of the city of Sepharvaim, of Hena, and Ivah?
Tirhakah king of Cush ruled during the 25th dynasty of Egypt, because Cush conquered and ruled Egypt.
An inscription by Esarhaddon of Assyria proclaims in Aramaic that he had defeated Tirhakah "king of Egypt and kush" (Pfeiffer 1966:611 ,612). King Tirhaka was buried not within Egypt proper. but in Napata, which was the capital of Kush (Adams 1977:250), a city between the 3rd and the 4th cataracts, clearly within the present borders of Sudan.
While figuring out the exact ancient borders may be interesting, it’s not the real reason I mention all of this. All I want is a global location of the country to rule out things like this:
Biblical scholar Ephraim Speiser proposed the "Gush", or "Kush", translated as Cush, meant to imply the Kashshu. The Kashshites overran Mesopotamia in 1500 B.c.E. These people dwelt east of Mesopotamia from the years 1800-
With this in mind, the most likely candidate would be the Karun River. The Karun and Karkheh rivers provided ancient Mesopotamia with vital trade routes into Elam and Susa. The people of this day would have been very familiar with the Gihon River, and the land of Kush, or the Kashshites (Kassites). The Karun river runs a course of over 500 miles. However, the river is only 175 miles in length. It runs a zigzagging, meandering course through the Zagros Mountains.
The Kassites ruled from 1531-
Speiser places Cush near Tigris and Euphrates; which is 1500km/956miles east of what the Bible states. While the exact size of ancient Cush is still unknown it’s clear it bordered Egypt. The location of Egypt has never been unclear or disputed.
Taharqa has been been suggested to be Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia (Kush), who waged war against Sennacherib during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah (2 Kings 19:9; Isaiah 37:9).
The events in the biblical account are believed to have taken place in 701 BC, whereas Taharqa came to the throne some ten years later. If the title of king in the biblical text refers to his future royal title, he still may have been too young to be a military commander.
Unfortunately these conflicting views do not rule out each other.
Cush was the southern neighbor of Egypt. Fact.
But that’s of zero importance if the Bible is referencing a totally different land as Speiser claims. Fact.
Kush vs Cush
Spelling varies between Kush and Cush. Does that one letter difference has a big impact? As huge as being two totally different kingdoms? Or is it merely a different spelling?
Hebrew Kush, Strong H3568, is found 30 times in the Bible. I listed all verses here. -
I don’t see a single verse that hints toward the Kassite view.
I have a strong feeling scholars keep looking very hard in the Babylonia area because they want to fit the Edenic rivers in a logical place that can be connected to their favorite spot for Eden, southern Babylonia. It’s fine to be very open to information.
The list of verses can be grouped into 3 parts.
4b. Gihon and Cush
An extremely simplified river that encompasses Cush is drawn with a red dotted line.
The names in blue are the modern names.
Of course there is just one river going north-
It’s easier to draw.
4a. Plate Tectonics introduction
Genesis is describing the rivers as they were during Adam’s time (in the Garden).
Sea levels at that time were much lower. What today may look a river running trough a sea, back then was running over dry land. Tectonic activity can make land rise and sink several thousand feet. The Red Sea didn’t exist during Adam’s time. The earth literally split open and got filled with water from the Arabian Sea.
Likely a similar thing happened with Sodom and Gomorrah. Volcanic fire rain, combined with the earth splitting open. We aren’t talking about a little crack of a few inches deep. It can be easily a 1000 feet deep.
Deep enough to swallow a city. Deep enough to bury a river.
The light yellow plate is Saudi-
The plate is both colors yellow combined with the thick black line as a border.
The only reason for the two colors is to make it easier to spot where the plate is located.
Read all you want as much as you want. It’s nice background information but it’s not needed to understand all of it. Just know/accept it exists. The reason is that it can explain why the rivers can’t be found.
Stating the obvious… water flows from high to low. Rivers usually flow trough the lower/lowest parts of the area.
I’m stating that because I started this study with concluding the Garden of Eden was in Jerusalem. That mean the whole course of the rivers from Jerusalem to where they empty into the sea must be without obstacles like mountain ranges. And if such an obstacle does exist it must be explained how the river could pass it.
So that obvious observation can be used to verify if the suggested path is correct.
3b. Horst and Graben
In geology, horst and graben refer to regions that lie between normal faults and are either higher or lower than the area beyond the faults. A horst represents a block pushed upward relative to the blocks on either side by the faulting, and a graben is a block generally long compared to its width that has been lowered relative to the blocks on either side due to the faulting. Horst and graben are formed when normal faults of opposite dip occur in pair with parallel strike lines. Horst and graben are always formed together. Graben are usually represented by low-
Horst and graben, elongate fault blocks of the Earth’s crust that have been raised and lowered, respectively, relative to their surrounding areas as a direct effect of faulting. Horsts and grabens may range in size from blocks a few centimetres wide to tens of kilometres wide; the vertical movement may be up to several thousand feet. They are bounded on both sides by steeply dipping normal faults, along which movement has been essentially equal, resulting in blocks that are scarcely tilted. The faults forming horsts generally dip away from each other: those forming grabens generally dip toward each other. Two or more horsts and grabens may occur adjacently. They are thought to be due to lateral tension possibly produced by regional uplift or salt dome formation; they often occur on the crests of domes or anticlines. Valleys formed in grabens are commonly called rift valleys and may exhibit features of vulcanism often associated with graben formation. Examples of grabens are the Jordan–Dead Sea depression and Death Valley. The Vosges Mountains of France and the Palestine Plateau are typical horsts.
Diagram of horst and graben formation.
Trista L. Thornberry-
Horst and Graben (valley and range) refers to a type of topography created when the earth's crust is pulled apart. This process, called extension, can stretch the crust up to 100% of its original size. As the crust is strained in this way, normal faults develop and blocks of the crust drop down to form grabens, or valleys. The end result of this is a vast landscape of alternating valleys and ridges. The western United States is an example of this, in the physiographic province known as the Basin and Range.
A relevant example of the “Closed basin lake” is the Dead Sea.
4c. Example of tectonic activity
More on the meaning of Peleg:
That dividing occurred a century after the Flood.
Some hold the view that ‘earth divided’ means people migrated. So making it mean ‘people divided’, while not wrong the name Peleg seems to paint another picture. Or a fuller picture. An earthquake that was related to stream or channel. That could be the Great Rift splitting open and forming Horst and Graben blocks. Meaning ‘earth divided’ can also be understood as ‘earth split open’. That view is supported when we look up de meaning of divide in various lexicons:
4d. Relevant geology of the area
Again I start with the conclusion, in an attempt to make what I’m trying to show easier to understand.
So, the four rivers are/were connected by a series of Grabens which are located on top of the Great Rift.
Tectonic activity caused the ground to sink, and formed the riverbeds of the famous Genesis 2 rivers. Later activity made two rivers disappear.
The red lines form the so called ‘Afar Triangle. The result of serious tectonic activity. If you compare it with the rough ‘river sketch’ I made in section 2b based on Scripture, you will see great similarity between the two.
This similarity is proof for my theory. It also rules out the two northern options for Pishon.
(the left line runs down south all the way to Zimbabwe)
So what’s that boring fault line stuff all about?
As we all know water runs from high to low. It collects in lower spots like channels and flows downwards from there. When you say “Tectonic Plates”, you say “Fault Lines. When you say “Fault Lines” you say “Horst and Graben”. When you say “Graben” you say “channels”. And when you say “channels” you say “rivers”.
My theory is that in Adam’s time the fault line also existed. Near Jerusalem (D) was the the highest ground.
Water that ran out of the Garden of Eden filled the fault line/Grabens/channel and it became a river that that ran downhill all the way down to the Afar Triangle (F) where it split and filled two different Graben channels we know as Gihon (H) and Pishon (G).
Point D was the highest point so water also ran toward Allepo (C). In kept running toward (B) and the water ‘leaked out’ the channel and became known as the Trigris and Euphrates rivers. Back then their source were not the Turkish mountains but the fault line channel.
So… Water flows out of the Garden as 1 river. As it flows into the channel it splits into two directions. Many miles later it splits up at both ends into two rivers, totaling 4.
So we know the names of the rivers between A-
What happened to the rivers?
What fault lines can create, they can also destroy. If the earth shifts (below the surface) it can cap springs. In my theory the massive spring that once fed the 4 rivers was shut down. That alone would dry up the rivers. But the fault line itself knew massive activity. The once perfect channel for the rivers is now destroyed.
The Tigris and Euphrates still exist because they ‘found’ new headwaters in the Turkish mountains.
Pishon and Gihon are lost because earth split open and formed the Red Sea.
The four rivers.
*** = Nothing is mentioned about A-
Gen 2:11 The name of the first was Pishon; it is the one surrounding all the land of Havilah where gold is;
Gen 2:13 And the name of the second river is Gihon. It is the one surrounding all the land of Cush.
The rivers only surround the countries partly. Fully surrounding would mean a full circle. Ignoring that leaves the problem of naming the rivers. If Pishon is surrounding Havilah, then B-
But at the same time B-
So what’s going on here?
5. Fresh water springs
5a. Artesian aquifer(s):
On the right there is a stream originating from an aquifer. A massive aquifer was likely what fed the river they flowed out of the Garden of Eden. More detail on that in a later section.
The drawing below is an artificial well (pipe) but something similar can exist in nature too.
Imagine that all rock layers are impregnable, an earthquake cracked the rocks and the water gushes out. The crack acts as a pipe. Another earthquake can make the crack bigger, resulting in more output. But the earthquake can just as well cap the well so the output decreases or ceases completely.
An artesian aquifer is an underground layer which holds groundwater under pressure. This causes the water level in the well to rise to a point where the pressure is equal to the weight of water putting it under pressure. This type of well is called an artesian well. Water may even reach the ground surface if the natural pressure is high enough, in which case the well is called a flowing artesian well.
An aquifer is a geologic layer which can hold water such as sand and gravel, limestone, or sandstone, through which water flows and is stored. An artesian aquifer is trapped between rocks or clay which causes the pressure. Water returns to the aquifers when the water table at its recharge zone is at a higher elevation than the head of the well.
Fossil water aquifers can also be artesian if they are under sufficient pressure from the surrounding rocks. This is similar to how many newly tapped oil wells are pressurized.
Construction workers in Jerusalem have discovered a large underground cave full of fresh flowing water. Officials say it is the most substantial underground water reservoir ever uncovered in the land. Scientists from Hebrew University who have been exploring the cave say it’s located about 150 feet below the ground. It appears to be around 30 feet high and stretches for some distance before cascading into the mountain aquifer that exists below the hills of Judea and Samaria.
Click Click Click
The cave also has hydrological significance because it is part of the mountain aquifer, an underground reservoir into which rainwater flows from the surface, and that extends all along Israel's central mountain range, Frumkin says. "The study of the cave can help us understand the precise mechanism by which water flows through the aquifer in the Jerusalem area," he adds.
5b. The 7 springs of Tabga
At Tabgha, the northwestern tip of the Sea of Galilee, were 7 springs in Jesus’ time. Six have been discovered. According to first century Jewish historian Josephus catfish came out of the largest spring. According to common belief at that time that African fish migrated through an underground river from the Nile to that spring.
For that to be possible there should be an underground river that connects the spring with the Nile.
This is an unusual fish, the sole representative of its African family. It is the largest of the original fish in the lake [Sea of Galilee], growing to a length of 1,25 meters, and may weigh up to 10 kilogram
Josephus Flavius refers to the catfish by its Greek name of “Korakinos”, meaning Water Raven; he notes that it is found in the Nile. In his opinion, this fact supports the popular belief that there was an underground connection between the Nile and the lake (Sea of Galilee), and that it emerged from below the ground at the largest spring at Tabga.
Mendel Nun, The Sea of Galilee and Its Fishermen in the New Testament, p. 10
The four rives, then, are these: the Pison, which is the Danube; the Gihon, which is the Nile; and then the Tigris and the Euphrates, between which we dwell. Although the places from which they flown are known, the source of the spring is not [known]. Because Paradise is set on a great height, the rivers are swallowed up again and they go down to the sea as if rivers through a tall water duct and so they pass through the earth which is under the sea into this land. The earth then spits out each one of them; the Danube, which is the Pison, in the west; the Gihon in the south; and the Euphrates and the Tigris in the north.
Ephraem the Syrian (306-
According to Ephraem Gihon is the Nile. Did he really write down common believes of his time? He seems to think all four rivers went underground. Even today Tigris and Euphrates are above ground; unless the rivers we know by that name aren’t the original ones.
The Czech explorer Alois Musil, in The Northern Hegaz, written in 1926, describes an extremely unusual feature of the northern seashore at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba: it contains fresh water.
He writes: “At low tide the rocky shore was laid bare for a distance of about two hundred yards, uncovering numerous springs which gushed forth with great strength.” Musil then emphasizes the excellent quality of this fresh water: “The animals [camels] did not wish to drink from the fresh water from the well, preferring to go to the sea shore where they very readily drank from the many springs which flowed there.”
What is the origin of the water in these freshwater springs at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba? It comes from rain water falling on the mountains bordering the Arabah. The water is then funneled along and under the sand of the Arabah down towards the Gulf of Aqaba, where it breaks out on the seashore as freshwater springs. The head of the Gulf of Aqaba thus has an extremely unusual physical geography. The seashore is a boundary between the salt waters of the gulf to the south and the freshwater coming down to the seashore from the north.
In addition, Edward Robinson (Biblical Researches in Palestine, 1841) describes a marsh at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba when he visited it in 1838, which would have been a fresh water marsh fed by freshwater funneled down the Arabah. This marsh still exists today, and reeds grow in it today, as they do in other places around the head of the Gulf of Aqaba
From this article by Collin Humphreys
The Gulf of Agauba is the most northern part of the Red Sea. Humphreys writes that the fresh water springs are rain water from the mountains. Could it be the real source is a now buried river that went out of the Garden, which is perhaps also (re)filled by rainwater from the mountains? Hard to say; the river was flowing there, but there are millions of springs on the earth that aren’t connected to that river for sure…
All contradicting info… Back to the connection between the Tabga spring and the Nile.
There are several possibilities for fish migrating from the Nile to Tabga spring.
5c. Gihon spring and Solomon
1 Kgs 1,38 So Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, band the Cherethites and the Pelethites went down and had Solomon ride on King David’s mule and brought him to Gihon.
1 Kgs 1,39 There Zadok the priest took the horn of coil from the tent and anointed Solomon. Then they blew the trumpet, and all the people said, “Long live King Solomon!”
1Kgs 1:45 And they anointed him, Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet, as king in Gihon. And they have come up from there rejoicing. And the city was roaring. It is the noise that you heard.
2Chr 32:30 And Hezekiah himself had stopped the outlet of the upper water-
Unlike the above quotes found in section 5b, this is inspired Scripture. That spring did, and still does, exist. Was the spring given that name in honor to the Edenic river or was it believed being still connection to the Gihon river that is (now) underground? Gihon means ‘burst forth’ which sounds like a spring but imo can just as well refer to emerging from the Garden.
5c. Fresh water flows into the Dead Sea
According to Jacob Ben Amir, each year 140 million m3 fresh water flows under the northern part of the Dead Sea. (Where the Edenic river once was)
5d. Sodom like the Garden of God
Gen 13:10 And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the Plain of the Jordan, that it was well watered every where, before Jehovah destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the garden of Jehovah, like the land of Egypt, as thou goest unto Zoar.
Gen 13:11 So Lot chose him all the Plain of the Jordan; and Lot journeyed east: and they separated themselves the one from the other.
Gen 14:2 That these made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar.
Sodom: Burning heap
Admah: Red earth
Those 5 cities were destroyed by God. The first three were obviously renamed after the destruction.
The meaning of the names give some great insight.
Gomorrah, submersion, fits quite well what happens when the earth splits open. The city would fall into the chasm or slide into what’s now the Dead Sea.
Right now the whole area is barren wasteland, but before the destruction it looked like the Garden of Eden with fertle soil. The last two names hint toward that. That simply means there was abundant water. And that supports my view of long gone river running there. A large river, not just a trickle.
The (gu)estimated destruction of the cities is 2300 BC (archeology) or about 1845 BC (Biblical chronology).
Isa 35:1 The wilderness and the dry land shall be glad; and the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose.
Isa 35:2 It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing; the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the excellency of Carmel and Sharon: they shall see the glory of Jehovah, the excellency of our God.
Isa 35:6 Then shall the lame man leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb shall sing; for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert.
Isa 35:7 And the glowing sand shall become a pool, and the thirsty ground springs of water: in the habitation of jackals, where they lay, shall be grass with reeds and rushes.
That sounds like the whole plain will be made fertile again by the use of springs.
For me the return of Christ is restoration of what was lost during and after the fall. The destruction of Sodom clearly was because of it’s fallen state. No less that four prophets give detailed information about the restoration of that area. Three of them mention water from Jerusalem.
Christ is linked to restoration, restoration is linked to water, water is linked to springs, and springs are linked to the Temple.
Springs are also (literally) linked to an underground water source, which does exist under Jerusalem.
What would be more obvious; Christ just uses His divine powers to let some random spring burst forth, or He actually reopens the spring that watered the Garden of Eden?
Springs don’t just randomly pop-
There will be earthquakes to open the ‘fountain of the deep’ (Gen 8:2) when Christ returns.
Splitting of mt Olives (crucifixion site)
Zech 14:4 And His feet shall stand in that day on the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives shall divide from its middle, from the east even to the west, a very great valley. And half of the mountain shall move toward the north, and half of it toward the south.
Zech 14:5 And you shall flee to the valley of My mountains, for the valley of the mountains shall reach to Azal. And you shall flee as you fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah. And YAHWEH my Elohim shall come, and all the saints with You.
5f. Misty Spring
Gen 2:6 but there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.
Gen 2:6 Instead, springs came up from the ground and watered all the land. (Click)
Many Bibles use the word "mist" but others (Greek) Bibles use the also correct words "flow" and "stream". That surely sounds like a spring. And that aligns perfectly with the verse in the Book of Adam and Eve about the water emerging from under the roots of the Tree of Life.
a mist] Heb. ’êd, a word found elsewhere in the O.T. only in Job 36:27, where it is rendered “vapour.” Here the meaning is not certain: the versions (LXX p???: Lat. fons: Targum “cloud”) reflect the doubt. The English versions follow the Targum. Recently, Assyriologists have compared the Babylonian êdû, meaning a “flood” or “overflowing.” It is possible that the rendering “spring” or “stream” maybe more accurate than “mist”; that in Job 36:27 ’êd may denote the “source” of the waters above the heavens; and that here it may refer to the hidden source of the rivers of the world. No account is given of the origin of rain.
watered] Literally, “gave to drink”; an expression better suited to a “stream” than to a “mist”: cf. Genesis 2:10, where it is used of a river. “The ground,” the face of which was watered by it, was “the cultivable soil” (adâmah).
During Jesus time that spring was still active. It was a main water supply for Jerusalem and was used in the Temple.
Due to seismic activity the output of the spring can vary a lot over the centuries.
Ancient sources state that the Pishon and Gihon rivers where subterranean. Gihon means "Bursting forth" Could be about a spring again.
The Tigris and Euphrates are surface rivers that are well know. But the other two are never found.... because everyone looks on maps that only show things on the surface....
Both Tigris and Euphrates originate in East-
The Jewish 1st century historian Josephus wrote there was a common belief that there was an underground river Gihon that connected the Nile and the sea of Galilee and sprung up from the Tabga spring. One of the proof for that is the migration of fish. Tabga spring was near Capernaum where Jesus read from the Temple Scroll.
“the explanation of the Ethiopian affinity of the fish fauna of the Jordan is that the Jordan formed at one time merely part of a river system that ran down the Great Rift Valley. The Jordan was one branch of this huge river system, the chain of lakes in East Africa represents the other; and together they opened into the Indian Ocean.”
R. Washbourn, “The Percy Sladen Expedition to Lake Huleh, 1935,” Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly Statements, (1936), p. 209.
2 Chronicles 32:30 This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper spring of the waters of Gihon, and brought them straight down on the west side of the city of David. And Hezekiah prospered in all his works.
The spring water was routed to Jerusalem. That spring was called Gihon spring and was located next to the Temple. It was tapped and flowed into the Temple.
Was it called Gihon spring because it was really connected to the underground river Gihon? Or was the name just a coincidence?
6. Underground rivers around the world
Just some prove underground rivers exist.
The articles are so lengthy (and boring?) I moved them to a separate page.
7. Folklore & Tradition
Stories about Adam and Eve were handed down for thousands of years before they were written down. Far from inspired writings. But in my search for proof I'll just write down the relevant bits of the books.
Click here for the full text of “The Book of Adam and Eve”.
This book is simply a version of an account handed down by word of mouth, from generation to generation, linking the time that the first human life was created to the time when somebody finally decided to write it down. This particular version is the work of unknown Egyptians. The lack of historical allusion makes it difficult to precisely date the writing, however, using other pseudepigraphical works as a reference, it was probably written a few hundred years before the birth of Christ. Parts of this version are found in the Jewish Talmud, and the Islamic Koran, showing what a vital role it played in the original literature of human wisdom.
Chapter I:9 And God commanded him to live there in a cave in a rock—the Cave of Treasures below the garden.
Chapter XLII:7 And, again, in regards to the Water of Life you seek, it will not be granted you this day; but on the day that I shall shed My blood on your head in the land of Golgotha
Chapter XLVII:5 Adam and Eve then came under the top of hill by the garden to sleep, as they were accustomed.
Gen 22,2 And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.
The above bit of folklore seems to say:
The cave itself was not part of the Garden as they still had access to it after they were expelled from the Garden.
According to Hebrew tradition:
1 Then Adam and Eve came out of the Cave of Treasures, and went near to the garden gate, and there they stood to look at it, and cried for having come away from it.
2 And Adam and Eve went from before the gate of the garden to the southern side of it, and found there the water that watered the garden, from the root of the Tree of Life, and that split itself from there into four rivers over the earth.
3 Then they came and went near to that water, and looked at it; and saw that it was the water that came forth from under the root of the Tree of Life in the garden.
The above verses from the Book of Adam and Eve informs us that a river originated from under the Tree of Life.
It’s very unlikely a river literally starts from the root of a tree, because that would wash away all soil in a very short time. It could for example mean that the tree stood on a hill. Deep inside that hill was limestone, which is very common in Israel, and from there water flowed out. Like water flowing from a rock? (Exodus)
8. The Temple as the water source
8b. Not a single verse…
Not a single verse that states…
That sounds like a lot of hopeless statements to start a search; doesn’t it?
While the Bible is lacking any direct statements, I think by piecing information together we can reach a quite certain conclusion. But yeah, the unseen thing do require some faith. I point to the introduction at the top of this page. I believe God’s plan revolves around Jerusalem.
The origin of the river was, and will be, the Temple in Jerusalem, which was located about 30 km or 19 mile west of ‘B’, in Jerusalem.
8c. Stream from the Temple
Zech 14:4 And his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south.
Here's a verse that prophesies an earthquake splitting Mount of Olives in two.
Zechariah 14 8 And it shall come to pass in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea, and half of them toward the western sea. In summer and in winter it shall be.
The water flows to the Mediterranean Sea and the dead sea. Living water is water that supports life. Unlike the salt water in the Dead Sea. In "winter and summer" is another clue. The river will even flow outside the rain season. So it's source isn't (just) rainwater.
1 And he brought me back to the door of the house. And, behold, waters issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward, for the forefront of the house was toward the east. And the waters came down from under, from the right
2 Then he brought me out by the way of the gate northward, and led me round by the way outside to the outer gate, by the way of [the gate] that looks toward the east. And, behold, waters ran out on the right side.
3 When the man went forth eastward with the line in his hand, he measured a thousand cubits, and he caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the ankles.
4 Again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the knees. Again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through [the waters], waters that were to the loins. 5 Afterward he measured a thousand, [and it was] a river that I could not pass through, for the waters were risen, waters to swim in, a river that could not be passed through.
6 And he said to me, Son of man, have thou seen [this]? Then he brought me, and caused me to return to the bank of the river.
7 Now when I had returned, behold, upon the bank of the river were very many trees on the one side and on the other.
8 Then said he to me, These waters issue forth toward the eastern region, and shall go down into the Arabah. (= desert A sea of sand, not water) And they shall go toward the sea, into the sea which were made to issue forth, and the waters shall be healed.
9 And it shall come to pass, that every living creature which swarms, in every place where the rivers come, shall live. And there shall be a very great multitude of fish (for these waters have come there) and shall be healed. And eve
10 And it shall come to pass, that fishermen shall stand by it. From En-
The stream will be so huge it turns the Dead Sea in a fresh water lake with many fish. That must be a huge spring fed by a strong underground river or a massive water source like the ones that fed ‘the fountains of the deep during the great flood.
Joel 3:18 And it shall be in that day, the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the streams of Judah shall flow with waters. And a fountain shall come forth from the house of YAHWEH, and it shall water the Valley of Shittim.
Zech 14:8 And it hath come to pass, in that day, Go forth do living waters from Jerusalem, Half of them unto the eastern sea (Dead Sea), And half of them unto the western sea (Mediterranean Sea), In summer and in winter it is.
Joel mentions a spring in or near the Temple as an irrigation source.
Zechariah adds which direction the water from the Temple flows.
Ezekiel repeats that and calls the water ‘rivers’, indicating a serious amount of water. And that requires an underground water source.
Please note Ezek 47:1 goes into great detail of the origin of the stream. It issues from the southeastern corner of the Temple. That was the location of the Laver or Brazen Sea. The priests used the water from this huge vessel too purify vessels and themselves. That vessel was filled with water from the Gihon spring.
Ps 46:4 There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacles of the most High.
Yet another verse about a river in Jerusalem.
All those verses mention a stream coming from the Temple and flowing eastward, where the Jordan River is.
It speaks in term of giving life and healing. Could that be related to this verse?
Rev 22,1 And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.
Sure, I’m fully aware that water has a spiritual meaning for many. And I fully agree with that. I just happen to believe it goes beyond that. It also restores nature to it’s Eden state. “I make all things new”.
Sure that would just take a divine hand gesture, a word or a thought; but I think Scripture doesn’t describe such a split second restoration.
8d. What’s the real meaning of the those verses?
Also keep in mind Ezekiel is having a vision about restoration of things. The era of the Messiah. So ask yourself this, is that restoration just about fish in the dead sea? Is the stream that feeds the Dead Sea, just a stream like the millions of streams on the earth? Is the stream also a restoration of a stream that existed before? And if so, is it a restoration of something Edenic?
I think it’s commonly agreed the Garden was a great place. Adam and Eve were close to God and it was just overall fantastic. Things went wrong and God started a long term plan of restoring things. Wouldn’t it make sense those restoration verses are about the Garden?
The Bible revolves around the Jewish people who belong in Israel. The center of Israel is Jerusalem. And the center of Jerusalem is the Temple. Things are being restored there. Restored means making like it onece was.
But who cares how it once was in Jerusalem, if the Garden was somewhere in present day Iraq?
The whole Bible revolves around Jerusalem. Not just when it was called Jerusalem; but also long before that, when Abraham intended to sacrifice Isaac on what once would be the Temple Mount.
I admit a feeling is no proof, but my feeling is that it's logical that Eden was where Jerusalem is located right now.
A certain book, orally transmitted history at best, states Adam and Even each worked on their part in the Garden. Two hills that are nowadays known as the Temple Mount and Mt Olives.
8e. Names of the river(s)
So far we only found the names of the rivers from their final split-
But what are the names of the parts A-
10 … it was parted, and became into four heads.
11 The name of the first is Pison: …
13 And the name of the second river is Gihon: …
14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: …
… And the fourth river is Euphrates.
Four rivers are named. Random order? All split from the same point? The river splits in two and many miles later it splits again? Is there such detail hidden in the verse?
There is a Mishna, a Jewish writing, about hiding Temple treasures until the Messiah returns. The relevant part is:
At that time, a great river will issue forth from the Holy of Holies of the Temple. It’s name is Gihon, and it will flow to the great and dreadful desert, and become mixed with the Euphrates River. Immediately, all the Vessels will float up and be revealed.
According to that text it’s the Gihon that flows from the Temple to point B. If so, B-
Another problem is that Gihon is the second river that splits off; and that’s simply impossible if it’s the source of all rivers.
If a single river becomes 4 heads it means:
That’s already getting complicated, doesn’t it? It gets even worse if you look at the drawing just above. If the main river flows into two direction which branch is first A or B?
Looking at C, which river branches of first? Gihon or Pishon?
Looking at A it’s clear Euphrates branches of before Tigris, but the Euphrates is mention as the fourth river, not the third or second.
If the Temple-
But what about A-
8f. Beginning of the end?
1. Weekend News Today By Andra Brack Source: Temple Mount Faithful
Tue May 18 , 1999 -
. . .
2. Date forwarded: Tue, 25 May 1999 12:15:47 -
From: Temple Mount Faithful
Update on the Water from the Temple Mount Islamic Diggings and Remains on the Temple Mount
Important news about the water flowing from the Temple Mount comes from the Israeli newspaper, HaTsofer. In the 15th May edition of the Journal, (pg 5) Eliazer Sheffer states that his Arab neighbour, Mohammed shared with him very secretly, and very emotionally, that water had started to flow from the rock on the Temple Mount. Mohammed told him that he had not seen it himself, but that he had heard that the Islamic Mufti of Jerusalem is very concerned by this happening because, according to Islamic writings, this is a good sign for the Jews and a bad sign for the Muslims. People who we have sent to check the situation could not see the water but the information that we have received and which was spread throughout Israel states that the Arabs on the Temple Mount have done everything possible to stop the flow of water, including by means of special pumps that they brought in for the purpose.
. . .
3. TEMPLE MOUNT HOLY WATER?
TO: Friends (and friends of friends) of Bridges for Peace FROM: Clarence H. Wagner, Jr., International Director -
Editor's note: We have been receiving so many letters asking about rumors of a "miraculous" flow of water coming from the Temple Mount, that we decided to go and check it out for ourselves.
. . .
Well, that's all the water there is to report about on the Temple Mount. It is not a breathtaking fulfillment of Biblical prophecy as far as we could tell. The question remains, is it anything at all?
. . .
On the other hand, there is a lot of illegal construction activity.
. . .
We also know that there are a number of huge water cisterns cut into the stone of the mountain. It would take very little imagination to believe that one or more of these cisterns had been broken or was being drained for some reason.
. . .
OK, I'll attempt to draw a few conclusions. There are no streams or rivers of water flowing from the Temple Mount.
. . .
4. Water from the rock on the Temple Mount
Weekend News Today (http://upway.com/cgi-
By Andra Brack Source: IsraelWire
Fri Jun 11, 1999 -
. . .
Among other indications, electro-
. . .
However, through a bizarre act of Divine Providence this week, I was actually able to speak to someone who has the inside scoop. Yes, the Temple mount is actually leaking. Yes, the Arabs are very concerned about it, and have even sectioned off the area into which the water is emerging (there are big fans set up to reduce moisture and dry carpets). Yes, they have even hired foreign engineers to solve the crisis, but to not avail, and for reasons they don't understand as of yet.
. . .
5. All of a sudden one evening the Lord gave me this vision.
“He let me see like a large dome of water under Jerusalem. It may be 1000 feet down. It is a tremendous large body of loose rock, water bearing rock, a huge cave full of water. God, at this time, is starting to let rock surface to push the water up through a waterway coming up under the dome of the rock, in the Temple Mount area. Little by little, it is coming up. It is coming up. Even now it is coming up at different places…
Note: All reports but one, on this topic are from 1999. One from 2001. I wonder why there are no more recent reports
The cave also has hydrological significance because it is part of the mountain aquifer, an underground reservoir into which rainwater flows from the surface, and that extends all along Israel’s central mountain range, Frumkin says. “
And the gold of that land is good; the bdellium and onyx stone are there."
These substances were not found within the borders of Mesopotamia. The gold of this passage rest in the land of Havilah. Bdellium came only from Southern Arabia and Somaliland in antiquity. The exact nature of the onyx stone is not known, however, precious stones were being brought into Israel and Mesopotamia through Arabia during times antiquity. Though the exact location of Havilah is not agreed upon unanimously, Scripture indicates it lie in Arabia, perhaps modern day Saudi Arabia. Indeed, the most ancient gold deposit on earth rests in Saudi Arabia, at modern day Mahd adh Dhahab. Mahd adh Dhahab was the largest, and one of the most richest, gold mines in antiquity. Many scholars believe Solomon obtained his gold from this mine. They also feel as if Mahd adh Dhahab is, more than likely, the Biblical Ophir
Thus, the Pishon may be identified as the Wadi al Batin, continuing underground, in a dried up ancient river bed, and emerging eventually around the oldest, most prolific gold mine of antiquity.
An intriguing theory by scholars has placed the Biblical Garden of Eden underneath Bubiyan Island. Interesting evidence exists underneath this island which suggests at one point the land was dry. In fact, up until 8,000 B.C.E., the entire Persian Gulf is thought to have been a dry river valley.
All four rivers flowed into the Persian Gulf in the land of Mesopotamia
All four rivers (or now-
Could Gethsemane at the foot of mt. Olives be the cave were Adam and Eve lived?
While no firm conclusions can be drawn for the above information the answer seems to be “yes”.
Death crept into creation and eternal life was restored at the same spot….
*******NOTHING MORE THAN UNVERIFIED NOTES BELOW THIS POINT *****