This page was last updated on 6 June, 2020.
The date of Exodus
1. Another revision of secular dates
This revision is slightly different from that on the previous page. The most striking point of this revision is that both Joseph and Moses occur in those lists.
2. Joseph = Imhotep
Joseph obviously has nothing to do with the Exodus. At least not directly. If Joseph can be matched with a certain Egyptian ruler then we can align Biblical and Egyptian history. And that’s a lead to Moses’ Pharoah because we know how long after Joseph the Exodus began.
The Bible never calls Joseph by his Egyptian name.
Likewise Egyptian writings never call Imhotep by his Biblical name, Joseph.
So linking those two is based on the time they lived and what their main accomplishments were.
- Imhotep was a vizier of Pharaoh; his highest official. That aligns perfectly with what the Bible writes
Gen 41:41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.
- Imhotep built grain silos (Gen 41) and saved Egypt from a seven year famine. What can I say besides that this is huge hint linking Joseph and Imhotep.
- The meaning of names has quite some similarity.
Zaphnath-paaneah means: Treasury of the glorious rest.
Imhotep means: The one who comes in peace, is with peace.
Gen 41:45 And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnath-paaneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt.
- Linguistically speaking, Ptah-hotep is very similar to Joseph.
- In a scroll titled “Ptah-hotep instructions” it states he’s is near death at 110 years old. The Bible states in Gen 50:26 Joseph died at 110.
Gen 50:26 So Joseph died, being an hundred and ten years old: and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.
- Egyptian documents state Joseph was doctor. The Bible doesn’t say that but Joseph had doctors under his command.
Gen. 50:2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father: and the physicians embalmed Israel
- Joseph’s tomb
Imhotep was also a high priest. It must be understood that as time past the status of Joseph kept rising. Even long after he died. At a point the Egyptians worshipped Joseph as a god. Much of those later things were fables. One of them is that Joseph was high priest of the pagan sun-god Ra.
The Egyptians gave Joseph a royal burial and he was buried in a tomb. That tomb was located and found to be empty. That aligns perfectly with the Bible.
Joseph’s coffin was orientated north indicating he did not worship Ra.
Exod 13:19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for he had strictly sworn the sons of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones away from here with you.
From an inscription.
...during his reign lived Imouthes (Imhotep), who, because of his medical skill has the reputation of Asclepius (the Greek god of medicine) among the Egyptians and who was the inventor of the art of building with hewn stone.
Egyptian priest Manetho
…Imhotep, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Chief under the King, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary Lord, High Priest of Heliopolis, Imhotep the Builder, the Sculptor, the Maker of Stone Vases...
Found in the Step Pyramid in Sakkara, on the base of a statue.
In Gen 39 we read that the wife of Potiphar wants to sleep with Joseph. That happened in Memphis which is near Sakkarah.
An inscription about the seven fat and seven meager years was found near the Nile. It was carved out 1000+ times. Let’s compare a few sections.
I was in distress on the Great Throne
Gen. 41:8 And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled
I asked him who was the Chamberlain, … Imhotep, the son of Ptah… What is the birthplace of the Nile? Who is the god there? Who is the God?” Imhotep answers: „I need the guidance of Him who presides over the fowling net
Gen. 41:16 And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace.
Son of Ptah=Imothep. Ptah is the Egyptian supreme creator god.
This god-like status is given to Joseph long after his death
The inscription states that river god Khumn spoke in the king’s dream that 7 bad years are followed by 7 good years.
Obviously that’s the reverse of what the Bible states but there is a certain resemblance.
Nile god Khumn orders that 10% of the harvest during 7 fat years was for Pharaoh. The Bible states 20%. Again no exact match but the inscription was made a 100 years after the events and was Egypianized.
The Pyramid of Teta…is one of the southern group of pyramids in Sakkara. The Arabs call it the “Prison Pyramid,” because local tradition says that it is built near the ruins of the prison where Joseph the patriarch was confined
As short summary of Joseph’s burial place:
- His coffin was facing north indicating he never became pagan.
- There were grain silos under his pyramid click.
- The tomb was empty because Moses took his bones.
- It was at Sakkara an massive graveyard, also for common people who would burry their first born sons there after the tenth plague. All Egypt would be there when Moses took the remains of Joseph.
- Num 33:3 And they departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the morrow after the passover the children of Israel went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians.
I’ll close the section about Joseph with a list of all parallels. It’s highly unlikely it’s about different person
- Imhotep: Minister of the king of Lower Egypt (= the northern part of Egypt where, for example, Sakkara is situated)
- Joseph: “And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt.”, “ ..and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt.” (Gen. 41:41,43).
- Imhotep: Foremost under the king
- Joseph: “…and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou.” (Gen. 41:40).
- Imhotep: Administrator of the great palace
- Joseph: “Thou shalt be over my house,” (Gen. 41:40).
- Ptah-Hotep was the chief judge in ancient Egypt but had been raised to the highest office .
- Pharaoh required all Egyptians to submit to the judgeship of Joseph (Genesis 41:41–44).
- Imhotep: Ruler by inheritance
- Joseph: “And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.” (Gen. 41:44). By this statement Joseph was granted the status of being the son of Pharaoh. The Pharaoh actually granted Joseph a higher status than a son, when all these matters are considered.
- Imhotep: Priest in Heliopolis
- Joseph: Married to the daughter of the priest in Heliopolis (Gen. 41:45). With the status Joseph had as representative of the only God and political leader, it is not unlikely that he also succeeded his father-in-law as priest in Heliopolis.
- Ptah-Hotep was once of no account in Egypt but had been elevated to the Prime Ministership
- Joseph was raised from prison to sit on the very throne of Pharaoh (Genesis 41:14, 41–44).
- Imhotep: Builder and architect
- Joseph: Joseph had all the storehouses and silos in Egypt built to store the grain and other food for the entire country and surrounding countries, during a period of seven years. (Gen. 41:35-36, 47- 49, 41:57 and other passages.)
- Imhotep: Discoverer of the art of building with cut stone.
- Joseph: See point 6-Joseph: If the hypothesis that the Sakkara complex was Joseph’s administrative centre is correct, then these buildings were in cut stone. They were also the first of this sort in Egypt, so the builder of Sakkara was also the discoverer of this building art.
- Imhotep: Exalted to be of godly character.
- Joseph: “And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Can we find such a one as this is, a man in whom the Spirit of God is?” (Gen. 41:38).
- Imhotep: It is not stated that people fell down before Imhotep but it is very probable that this was the case considering Imhotep‘s position in society.
- Joseph: People fell down before Joseph (Gen. 41:43).
- Ptah-Hotep was a monotheist. No idolatry is mentioned.
- Joseph believed only in the God of Israel, not idols.
- Out of thousands who went into their neighbor’s wives, Ptah-Hotep did not, and taught people not to do so.
- Joseph refused to submit to the advances of his master’s wife (Genesis 39).
- Imhotep: Great medical skill, is compared to the Greek god of healing, Asclepius.
- Joseph: Had doctors in his service, and worked by performing miracles and signs from God(Gen. 50:2).
- Imhotep: Was active during a period with seven years of famine followed by seven years of good harvests.
- Joseph: Was active during a period with seven good years followed by seven years of famine (Gen. 41:1-32, 47-57).
- Imhotep: “I need advice from God”.
- Joseph: “And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace.” (Gen. 41:16).
- Imhotep: Called the son of Ptah, the creator of all things.
- Joseph: Professed faith in the only God, creator of all things (Gen. 40:8, 41:16, 41:25).
- Imhotep: Gives Pharaoh advice.
- 15-Joseph: Gives Pharaoh advice (Gen. 41:1-57).
- Imhotep: Comes to Pharaoh when Pharaoh is distressed.
- Joseph: Comes to Pharaoh when Pharaoh is worried (Gen. 41:8,14)
- Imhotep: Decides on the tax rate (10%) to cope with the seven year-long famine.
- Joseph: Decides on the tax rate (20%) to cope with the seven year-long famine (Gen. 41:34).
- Imhotep: The tax law does not apply to the priests.
- Joseph: The tax law does not apply to the priests (Gen. 47:26)
- Ptah-Hotep received a double possession from his father because of his obedience (XXXIX and XLIV).
- Joseph likewise received the birthright the double possession (1 Chronicles 5:2)
- Ptah-Hotep received from his father divine laws; even one of the Ten Commandments was quoted.
- Joseph was taught the divine laws from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Genesis 26:5).
- Imhotep: Becomes the god of healing and comes to people as they sleep (18, 19).
- Joseph: Performs miracles in the lives of others, and is characterized by having dreams that come true and the ability to correctly interpret the dreams of others (Gen. 37:5-11,20, 40:5-23, 41:1-36)
- "The wise is known by his wisdom, the great by his good actions; his heart matches his tongue..."
- PRO 18:21 Death and life are in the power of the tongue: and they that love it shall eat the fruit thereof.
- Imhotep: Realises when he is dying (20).
- Joseph: Realises when he is dying (Gen. 50:24)
- Imhotep: "If you probe the character of a friend, don't enquire, but approach him, deal with him alone,..."
- PRO 25:9 Debate thy cause with thy neighbor himself; and discover not a secret to another".
- Imhotep: Has written many words of wisdom.
- Joseph: “And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Forasmuch as God hath shewed thee all this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou art.” (Gen. 41:39). There are also great resemblances to the Book of Proverbs. In the Book of Psalms it says of Joseph: “…and teach his senators wisdom” (Ps. 105:22).
- Imhotep: Dies at the age of 110.
- Joseph: Dies at the age of 110 (Gen. 50:22-26).
- ‘Both’ lived in the same dynasty.
- Imhotep: Was probably not appointed and in service until Pharaoh Djoser had reigned for a time.
- Joseph: Was appointed some time after Pharaoh had established himself as ruler in Egypt (Gen. 41:37-45).
- Imhotep: Was not of royal blood but attained his position on his own merits.
- 24-Joseph: Was from another nation, was not of royal blood and attained his position through the qualities God had given him (Gen. 37:1 – 41:57).
- Ptah-Hotep warns those of advanced knowledge, such as he had, to shun being puffed up (II).
- There was none considered wiser in all the land of Egypt than Joseph (Genesis 41:39), but he was also humble (Genesis 45:15).
- Imhotep: "If you are a man of worth who sits in his master's council, concentrate on excellence, your silence is better than chatter... gain respect through knowledge..."
- ECC 9:17 The words of wise men are heard in quiet more than the cry of him that ruleth among fools.
- Imhotep: "The wise is known by his wisdom, the great by his good actions; his heart matches his tongue..."
- PRO 18:21 Death and life are in the power of the tongue: and they that love it shall eat the fruit thereof.
- Imhotep: Is called “Ibis”, in other words the one to whom all the ibis birds were sacrificed in Sakkara.
- Joseph: In a burial chamber inside the galleries of about a million mummified ibis birds, there is an empty coffin. This fits with what Joseph’s grave would have looked like: an empty coffin since the people of Israel had taken his bones with them (Gen. 50:22-26).
- Imhotep: Pharaoh Djoser reigned during the seven year-long famine. The one who was minister of state with the status of a god was Imhotep.
- Joseph: The Bible states that, under the reigning Pharaoh, Joseph was minister of state with the status of a representative of God, who solved the problem of the approaching seven years of famine disaster (Gen. 41:37-45).
3. Moses = Amenemhet IV
This clearly doesn’t align with the conclusion on the previous page, were Amenemhet IV was the evil Pharaoh that died in the Red Sea.
Like the previous page this page also sets the year of Exodus at 1446BC.
Moses was an adopted child (Exodus 2) and raised as an Egyptian bound to become the next Pharaoh. While traditional chronology has Amenemhet IV as sole ruling Pharaoh, in the revised chronology he is a co-ruler between.
Co-rule means Moses ruled together with Amenemhet III. Moses was the lesser Pharaoh so to speak.
Moses co-ruled for a little over 9 years, somewhere between 1495-1486BC.
That rule obviously ended after Moses killed the slave master and fled to Midian.
Acts 7:28 Do you not want to kill me the way you killed the Egyptian yesterday?"
Acts 7:29 "And Moses fled at this word. And he became a sojourner in the land of Midian," where he fathered two sons.
Acts 7:30 And forty years being fulfilled to him, the Messenger of YAHWEH appeared to him in a flame of fire in a bush in the wilderness of Mount Sinai.
Setting the starting year of the Exodus at 1446BC we arrive at the year 1486BC as the end of Moses’ co-reign. And that happens to align perfectly with the co-reign of Amenemhet IV.
Moses was found and raised by Sobeknefru. It’s not entirely clear who she was.; wife, sister or daughter of ruling Pharaoh Amenemhet III.
When Moses left there was suddenly no heir to the throne. Pharaoh died shortly after Moses fled and Sobeknefru became the next Pharaoh for a disputed duration of less that 4 years up to 8 years.
With the death of Sobeknefru and no heirs the 12th Dynasty ended.
Exod 4:19 And the LORD said unto Moses in Midian: 'Go, return into Egypt; for all the men are dead that sought thy life.'
When Moses returned Neferhotep (13th Dynasty) was the ruling Pharaoh.
Neferhotep was the Exodus Pharaho that died in the Red Sea.
With that the 13th Dynasty ended.
And that end also validates the Exodus and the suggested Pharaoh. A few quotes:
In recent years the idea of a simple Hyksos migration, with little or no war, has gained support. According to this theory, the Egyptian rulers of the Thirteenth Dynasty were preoccupied with domestic famine and plague, and they were too weak to stop the new migrants from entering and settling in Egypt.
The plagues are described in Exodus. Famine is the obvious result if all crops are destroyed. The country was weak because most of it’s army perished in the Red Sea.
By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow; and having overpowered the rulers of the land they then burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the gods, and treated all the natives with a cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others.
That sounds like easy victory over a country that lost most of its army in the Red Sea. But that’s a little troublesome because Sobeknefru ruled several years after the Exodus started. I would say that means she resisted the invaders for several years and that likely means some blows on both sides.
Maybe the following article explains that ‘contradiction’.
Egypt began to be invaded by a people "of obscure race", who became known as the Hyk-Sos, "shepherd kings". These Hyksos melted easily into Egyptian society at first; eventually they became very powerful, and finally, in a coup, they came to rule the whole of Northern Egypt,
Placing that in the timeline it would mean they settled in Egypt at the start of the Exodus and their coup took place 4-8 years later when the rule of Sobeknefru ended.
The Hyksos likely were the Amalekites Joshua battled.
In the Gulf of Aqba remains of chariots have been found. The wheels had 4 or 6 spokes. There was just one era that two wheel designs were used alongside. That pre 1400BC
- Exodus started 1446BC, a Jubilee year.
For me a Jubilee carries much weight. Increasing the odds this is the correct year.
- Neferhotep was the Exodus Pharaho that died in the Red Sea.
- Joseph was Egyptian Vizier Imhotep
- Moses was co-ruling Pharaoh Amenemhet IV